淘宝商铺|人力资源|在线翻译|English
杭州中译翻译有限公司
您好,请问您需要翻译什么内容?
需要进行哪个语种的翻译?
您的位置:首 页 >> 新闻公告 >> 翻译资讯

英语写作中英文逗号、冒号还有分号的使用规范

杭州中译翻译有限公司·您值得信赖的语言服务提供商·0571-88272987

  英语写作中该如何正确地使用标点符号,其实很多人都不太清楚。今天我们就系统地来了解下,英文中逗号、冒号还有分号的使用规范。

  如何使用逗号(Comma)

  在大部分的写作中,逗号是最常被使用的标点符号。但因为逗号的使用场景和使用要求最多,因此许多人会对如何正确使用感到困惑,以下是逗号的几点重要功能,以及适当的使用时机。

  罗列事物或短语时:

  I bought bread, cheese, and pickles at the grocery store.

  需要分隔两个独立的较长从句,并使用连接词连接时:

  Astronomers have known about the positions of stars for centuries, but they didn’t understand that the earth revolves around the sun.

  在介绍性短句的后面:

  In preparation for the next convention, the representatives studied up on the most important issues.

  当需要区分附加说明部分的句子(parenthetical phrase),或要分隔插入语(interrupter)时:

  All doctors, if they care about their patients, are concerned with good office hygiene.

  逗号的常见错误使用案例

  Comma splice 不要在未使用连接词的情况下,使用逗号分隔两个独立的从句

  错误范例: Thousands of protesters showed up on the streets, they were shouting and carrying large posters.

  正确范例: Thousands of protesters showed up on the streets; they were shouting and carrying large posters.

  Combining lengthy phrases 在复合句中使用逗号或用逗号来分隔短句会造成读者的困惑,这种情况应使用分号。

  错误范例: Some useful subjects are English, which is an international language, math, which is used in all domains of sciences and social sciences, and philosophy, which underpins many other areas of study.

  正确范例: Some useful subjects are English, which is an international language; math, which is used in all sciences and social sciences; and philosophy, which underpins many other areas of study.

 

  如何使用冒号(Colon)

  冒号来条列下文,并告诉读者 “Here’s what I mean.”。通常在英文写作中,冒号不常被使用,除非您有许多内容需要列举,冒号的使用准则较为严谨,但也相对容易被记住。

  介绍一个或多个项目:

  Humans use five major senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.

  分隔两个独立从句,第二个从句用来叙述、说明、改写或延伸第一个从句:

  Martha realized that her worst fear was coming true: her son was being sent to war.

  (*冒号后用独立的从句解释 Martha’s fear)

  商业书信或正式信件开头问候语:

  To the Central Valley Committee Chairman:

  其他冒号使用准则

  冒号后的第一个字母不要大写,除非是专有名词, is part of a quote, or is the first in a series of sentences:

  错误范例: I have three desires: To eat, sleep, and work.

  正确范例 : I have three desires: to eat, sleep, and work.

  当引号内包含多个句子,许多作者会倾向使用冒号而非逗号来引出内容:

  In Chapter 3, the author explains his theory: “Dogs have dreams, but they don’t dream as humans do. Their dreams reflect a primal desire for pleasure, whereas humans are preoccupied with the ego and self-image. This is equally true in wakefulness and sleep.”

  接在冒号之后的内容不一定要是完整的句子,可以是单词或短语:

  There is one mantra that can sum up our position towards climate change: urgent action.

  常见冒号错误

  分隔平等并且无相关的两个从句:

  错误范例: Sarah and her friends loved spending time on the mountain : nature always held a special meaning for them.

  正确范例: Sarah and her friends loved spending time on the mountain ; nature always held a special meaning for them.

  (*若两个从句完全无相关,则应使用句号;若第二个从句和第一个从句有某种程度相关,并且并非用来陈述、说明或改写第一个子句,则使用分号分隔)

 

  如何使用分号(Semicolon)

  分号用来分隔两个独立的概念(两个独立的从句),但这两个句子是有相关性的。当陈列复杂的概念或短语,并且句中包含逗号时,适合使用分号来分隔。分号拥有逗号的功能,但包含更多意思,亦有冒号的功能。

  在句中加入两个或多个概念,而这些概念互为平等时:

  The universe has always called to human beings; there could be no more final frontier than space.

  加入两个用连接副词或转折片语连接的独立从句:

  Sam thought David was inviting him to the picnic to enjoy a nice day out; as it turned out, David was planning a surprise birthday party.

  陈列许多或一系列不同的项目,项目中包含逗号时,或者项目相对长且性质较复杂:

  Our family members came all the way from Denver, Colorado; Rochester, Minnesota; and even Paris, France.

  使用对等连接词连接两个独立从句(若两个从句已使用逗号分隔),或者当两个从句较长时:

  My main research objective is to isolate the cause of the disease, as well as to contribute to the existing literature; for this will bring an end to starvation across the continent, create new study designs related to epidemiology, and change the very paradigm of my research field.

  应使用分号而非逗号的情况

  错误范例: The specimens were treated properly, however, they were not stored properly.

  正确范例: The specimens were treated properly; however, they were not stored properly.

  *副词“however”表示的是连接两个独立的从句; 不要用逗号去连接两个不包含并列连词(and, but, or, nor 等等)的独立从句。

  错误范例: The sun is wonderful: it produces light, which plants need to survive, it gives us warmth, which is useful for most life, and it makes a sad day happier, which is obviously a positive trait!

  正确范例: The sun is wonderful: it produces light, which plants need to survive; it gives us warmth, which is useful for most life; and it makes a sad day happier, which is obviously a positive trait!

  *若只使用逗号,则无法清楚的表明陈列的项目是什么。因此,要善用冒号用来分开包含逗号的项目。


 

分享到:QQ空间新浪微博腾讯微博人人网微信

相关文章: